In December 2019, a novel coronavirus outbreak was first reported in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. It has now been confirmed on six continents and in over 100 nations as of this writing. New knowledge is produced on a regular basis as the world’s health systems devote resources to learning about, treating, and avoiding infections in humans. We will first provide some background on coronaviruses to put this disease epidemic in context, then explore global health security and pandemic response preparation in this two-part article series. Second, we’ll provide advice on prevention and planning in the office and at home from the most reliable sources.
A plaque honoring two partners in the discovery of a mosquito vector for yellow fever virus can be found on the wall of a Columbia University Medical Center building just across the street from my lab.
The Plaque Reads:
Graduates of Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, class of 1892, Aristides Agramonte and Jesse William Lazear. U.S. Army Acting Assistant Surgeons Drs. Walter Reed and James Carroll are members of the United States Yellow Fever Commission. They assisted in the eradication of a man-made plague by devotion and self-sacrifice.
Yellow fever, which has been seen in tropical areas since the 15th century, has caused devastating epidemics with high mortality rates. The disease can be minor, with symptoms such as fever and nausea, but it can also be severe, with catastrophic organ failure. The name of the disease comes from the yellowing of the skin (jaundice) caused by liver damage. For most of its history, nothing was known about the spread of yellow fever.
What are coronaviruses?
Coronaviruses are a broad family of zoonotic viruses that can cause everything from a simple cold to severe respiratory illnesses. These viruses are zoonotic, which means they can spread from animals to humans. Several coronaviruses have been identified as circulating in various animal species but have not yet infected humans. The COVID-19 strain is the most recent to infect humans.
COVID-19 infection symptoms are comparable to a cold and include a dry cough, fever, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. Infection can lead to pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death in the most serious cases.
The COVID-19 disease is spread from one individual to others by means of beads delivered from the respiratory arrangement of contaminated individuals, frequently during hacking or sniffling. As per current information, time from openness to the beginning of side effects is for the most part somewhere in the range of two and 14 days, with a normal of five days.
Recent coronavirus outbreak history
Two other late Covid episodes have been capable. Center East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) of 2012 was found to communicate from dromedary camels to people. In 2002, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) was found to communicate from civet felines to people.
In spite of the fact that COVID-19 has previously shown a few likenesses to ongoing Covid episodes, there are contrasts and we will learn substantially more as we manage this one. SARS cases added up to 8,098 with a casualty pace of 11% as detailed in 17 nations, with most of the cases happening in a southern central area of China and Hong Kong. The casualty rate was exceptionally reliant upon the age of the patient with those under 24 to the least extent liable to pass on (one percent) and those north of 65 probably going to kick the bucket (55%). No cases have been accounted for overall since.
Global Health Security
An extensive analysis of health security and response capacities across 195 countries was conducted by an international team of experts. 5 The project’s goals were to assess the risks of infectious disease outbreaks that might result in global epidemics and pandemics and to gauge each country’s capacity for response. The GHS Index was expected to have measurable effects on national health security and increase global readiness.
The GHS Index assessed variables in six major categories:
Prevention: Stopping the spread or appearance of pathogens.
Early detection and reporting for epidemics that may be of concern on a global scale.
Rapid Response: Quick response to an outbreak and mitigation of its spread.
Health System: A complete and effective health system that can treat patients and safeguard medical professionals.
Adherence to international standards and commitments to strengthening national capacity are examples of compliance with international standards.
Risk Environment: General risk environment and biological threat susceptibility of the nation.